In view of the growing influence of religion in public life on the national and international scenes, Muslim Diaspora in the West constitutes a timely contribution to scholarly debates and a response to concerns raised in the West about Islam and Muslims within diaspora. It begins with the premise that diasporic communities of Islamic cultures, while originating in countries dominated by Islamic laws and religious practices, far from being uniform, are in fact shaped in their existence and experiences by a complex web of class, ethnic, gender, religious and regional factors, as well as the cultural and social influences of their adopted homes. Within this context, this volume brings together work from experts within Europe and North America to explore the processes that shape the experiences and challenges faced by migrants and refugees who originate in countries of Islamic cultures. Presenting the latest research from a variety of locations on both sides of The Atlantic, Muslim Diaspora in the West addresses the realities of diasporic life for self-identified Muslims, addressing questions of integration, rights and equality before the law, and challenging stereotypical views of Muslims. As such, it will appeal to scholars with interests in race and ethnicity, cultural, media and gender studies, and migration.
This first volume covers the development of Islam in the period from the birth of Muhammad in C.E. 570 through 1500, during which Islam grew to dominate the area which has come to be known as the Middle East. Along with their religion, Muslims carried their culture, their goods, and their innovations to the far corners of the globe. Their contributions to Western civilization-such as new kinds of agriculture (irrigation, oranges, sugarcane, cotton), manufactured goods (satin, rugs, paper, perfumes), and technology (astrolabe, compass, lateen sail)--are set out in detail.
This book is a study of the UK-based Ahmadiyya Muslim community in the context of the twentieth-century South Asian diaspora. Originating in late nineteenth-century Punjab, the Ahmadis are today a vibrant international religious movement; they are also a group that has been declared heretic by other Muslims and one that continues to face persecution in Pakistan, the country the Ahmadis made their home after the partition of India in 1947. Structured as a series of case studies, the book focuses on the ways in which the Ahmadis balance the demands of faith, community and modern life in the diaspora. Following an overview of the history and beliefs of the Ahmadis, the chapters examine in turn the use of ceremonial occasions to consolidate a diverse international community; the paradoxical survival of the enchantments of dreams and charisma within the structures of an institutional bureaucracy; asylum claims and the ways in which the plight of asylum seekers has been strategically deployed to position the Ahmadis on the UK political stage; and how the planning and building of mosques serves to establish a home within the diaspora. Based on fieldwork conducted over several years in a range of formal and informal contexts, this timely book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience from social and cultural anthropology, South Asian studies, the study of Islam and of Muslims in Europe, refugee, asylum and diaspora studies, as well as more generally religious studies and history.
Muslim Diaspora identifies those aspects of migratory experience that shatter or reinforce a group’s attachment to its homeland and affect its readiness to adapt to a new country. The contributors to this collection examine many dimensions of life in the Diaspora and demonstrate that identity is always constructed in relation to others. They show how religious identity in diaspora is mediated by many other factors such as: Gender Class Ethnic origin National status A central aim is to understand Diaspora as an agent of social and cultural change, particularly in its transformative impact on women. Throughout, the book advances a more nuanced understanding of the notions of ethnicity, difference and rights. It makes an important contribution to understanding the complex processes of formation and adoption of transnational identities and the challenging contradictions of a world that is being rapidly globalized in economic and political terms, and yet is increasingly localized and differentiated, ethically and culturally. Muslim Diaspora includes contributions from outstanding scholars and is an invaluable text for students in sociology, anthropology, geography, cultural studies, Islamic studies, women’s studies as well as the general reader.
This book provides insights into some of the social topics related to the homogenization and stereotyping of Muslims. It explores the experiences of Muslims in Western societies, with a particular focus not only on gender, home and belonging, multiculturalism, and ethnicity.
This first volume covers the development of Islam in the period from the birth of Muhammad in C.E. 570 through 1500, during which Islam grew to dominate the area which has come to be known as the Middle East. --
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Cultural Studies - Miscellaneous, grade: 1, University of Vienna (Kultur- und Sozialanthropologie), course: Home, Habitat and Diaspora, language: English, abstract: In the following I will discuss some general conceptual thoughts on the notion of diaspora, which could be useful for the discussion of the claim of an existing Muslim Diaspora. After the introduction I'd like to illustrate with social-science based literature on Germany and the USA thoughts on The Muslim Diaspora. Referring to this chapter I'd like to present arguments for and against the usage of the notion The Muslim Diaspora in social sciences. A reflection will sum up the ideas of the essay. Many especially western socialized scholars speak about the Muslim Diaspora in Europe and the USA. In fact that the notion of diaspora has been politicized, many nationalist groups or even governments often use the concept of diaspora to pursue agendas of nation-state-building or controlling populations abroad. Because of this politicization of the notion, “scholars have argued that the term should be used with care and not regarded as an innocuous analytical concept” (Brubaker 2005, quoted in Faist 2010: 13). Looking at the EU and the debate on a European comprehensive immigration policy, the term diaspora figures prominently in officially issued EU documents and that the concept has evolved along with efforts at migration control. In EU documents, “Diasporas are portrayed as networks of migrants with various legal links to the home country. By contrast, the language of UN documents revolves around ‘transnational communities’ as main actors in development policy.” (Faist 2010: 19) But in the terms of the EU, Diasporas, as proverbial “seeds in the wind”, “are thought to contribute to development in the countries of origin, without being burdened by the experience of traumatic dispersal.” (ibid. 19) In general, concepts of diaspora deal with dispersal, traumatic and the resulting emergence and reproduction of collective identity (varying intensities of ties to the country of emigration and the countries of immigration) (ibid. 21). It is important to notice that the concept and the meanings of the notion ‘diaspora’ changed dramatically in the academia (and even the politics) in the last decades. If the academia would argue, that the three main categories of the concept of diaspora are (1) the dispersion in space (2) the orientation to a homeland and (3) boundary maintenance - it could be possible to converge to the phenomenon of diaspora and to draw near the discussion if there is the Muslim diaspora in the western world and the following discussion question:
In a world of increasingly mixed identities, what does it mean to belong? As western democracies increasingly curtail their support for multiculturalism, how can migrants establish belonging as citizens? A Muslim Diaspora in Australia explores how a particular migrant group has faced the challenges of belonging. The author illustrates how Bosnian migrants in Australia have sought to find places for themselves as migrants, as refugees, and as Muslims, in Australia and Australian society. Challenging the methodological nationalism that tends to dominate discussions of migrant identities, the author exposes the ways in which dignity emerges as a dominant concern for people as they relate to varied local, national and translational contexts. Very little is known about how migrants themselves read and react to the multiple challenges of belonging and this pioneering work offers a timely and much needed critical insight into what it means to belong.
How do we engage with the pressing challenges of xenophobia, radicalism and security in the current political climate? The widely felt sense of insecurity in the West is shared by Muslims both within and outside Western societies. Growing Islamic militancy and the subsequent increased security measures by Western powers have contributed to a pervasive sense among Muslims of being under attack both physically and culturally. Islam and Political Violence brings together current debates on the uneasy and potentially mutually destructive relationship between the Muslim world and the West and argues that we are on a dangerous trajectory, strengthening dichotomous notions of the divide between the West and the Muslim world.
[This era saw the spread of Islam during the age of Napoleon and the first important conflict between a Muslim people and the new nation called the United States of America. The volume looks at the interaction between the fading Muslim empires and the warring European powers, focusing on such dominant personalities as Muhammad 'Ali of Egypt and Uthman dan Fodio of Nigeria. The influence of Muslim slaves on the slave insurrections in Brazil is also addressed. In addition to telling the story of the Muslim diaspora, the volume also juxtaposes detailed histories of Jews, Christians and people of African descent, along with a comprehensive history of the world so that the developments in the Muslim world can be placed within the context of what was happening elsewhere in the world and what was happening elsewhere to those whose religious roots are shared by the practitioners of Islam. The book is fully indexed, with a bibliography and several appendices.]
This study reflects on discourses, politics, and culture of islamophobia with reference to Muslim diaspora communities in a post-migration Western European context. It argues that islamophobia is the product, as well as carries the agency, of Muslim diaspora enclave-exclave phenomenon. These socio-spatial encounters are not to be seen as divisive, but are to be understood as productive to seek to negotiate a transnational multi-cultural public space for integration. It is in this context that this study has sought to relocate European Islamophobia in Muslim diaspora enclaves. Dissertation. (Series: Islam in the Existence of Europe / Islam in der Lebenswelt Europa, Vol. 11) [Subject: Islamic Studies, Middle East Studies, Muslim Studies]
This major works collection surveys the nature of Muslim Diasporas in the west from a sociological perspective, exploring the issues of migration, integration, identity, politics, Islamophobia and radicalisation. This four-volume collected works is the state of the art on the research and scholarship on Muslim Diasporas in the West. From canonical works to the latest trends in research, these volumes added to the understanding of ethnicity, equality and diversity in relation to Muslims in the west. The articles explore the philosophies of multiculturalism, integration and interculturalism. They also analyse issues of identity politics, Islamophobia and radicalisation. This major works collection suitably captures the significance of past research and its importance for further scholarship in relation to Muslims and Islam across Europe, North America and Australia.
This second volume details the continued spread of Muslim culture and peoples during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a period that saw the height of the powerful Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires, followed by their precipitous decline. The contributions of Muslims to the development of Western civilization continue to be highlighted in this chronology, most notably the impact of the Ottoman Empire on Western art and literature and its role in creating an environment in which the Protestant Reformation could take root. This volume reveals the interconnectedness of the Muslim, Jewish, African and European diasporas during this period.
Examines the dynamics that drive changes in the religio-political landscape of the Muslim world, the effects of 9/11, the global war on terrorism, and the war in Iraq. The authors present a typology of ideological tendencies; identify the factors that produce religious extremism and violence; assess key cleavages along sectarian, ethnic, regional, and national lines; and identify possible strategies and military options for the United States to pursue in this critical and volatile part of the world.
In recent years, geographies of identities, including those of ethnicity, religion, 'race' and gender, have formed an increasing focus of contemporary human geography. The events of September 11th, 2001 particularly illustrated the ways in which identities can be transformed across time and space by both global and local events of a social, cultural, political and economic nature. Such transformations have also demonstrated the temporal and spatial construction of hate and fear, and of increasing incidences of 'Islamophobia' through the construction of Muslims as 'the Other'. As the social scientific study of religion continues to be marginalized within mainstream scholarship, there remains an important gap in the literature. This timely book addresses this gap by collecting a range of cutting-edge contributions from the social, cultural, political, historical and economic sub-disciplines of geography, together with writings from gender studies, cultural studies and leisure studies where research has revealed a strong spatial dimension to the construction, representation, contestation and reworking of Muslim identities. The contributors illustrate the ways in which such identities are constructed, represented, negotiated and contested in everyday life in a wide variety of international contexts, focusing upon issues connected with diaspora, gender and belonging.
Fiction by writers of Muslim background forms one of the most diverse, vibrant and high-profile corpora of work being produced today - from the trail-blazing writing of Salman Rushdie and Hanif Kureishi, which challenged political and racial orthodoxies in the 1980s, to that of a new generation including Mohsin Hamid, Nadeem Aslam and Kamila Shamsie. This collection reflects the variety of those fictions. Experts in English, South Asian, and postcolonial literatures address the nature of Muslim identity: its response to political realignments since the 1980s, its tensions between religious and secular models of citizenship, and its manifestation of these tensions as conflict between generations. In considering the perceptions of Muslims, contributors also explore the roles of immigration, class, gender, and national identity, as well as the impact of 9/11. This volume includes essays on contemporary fiction by writers of Muslim origin and non-Muslims writing about Muslims. It aims to push beyond the habitual populist 'framing' of Muslims as strangers or interlopers whose ways and beliefs are at odds with those of modernity, exposing the hide-bound, conservative assumptions that underpin such perspectives. While returning to themes that are of particular significance to diasporic Muslim cultures, such as secularism, modernity, multiculturalism and citizenship, the essays reveal that 'Muslim writing' grapples with the same big questions as serve to exercise all writers and intellectuals at the present time: How does one reconcile the impulses of the individual with the requirements of community? How can one 'belong' in the modern world? What is the role of art in making sense of chaotic contemporary experience?
This book analyzes Islam as a form of 'travelling theory' in the context of contemporary global transformations such as diasporic communities, transnational social movements, global cities and information technologies. Peter Mandaville examines how 'globalization' is manifested as lived experience through a discussion of debates over the meaning of Muslim identity, political community and the emergence of a 'critical Islam'. This radical book argues that translocal forces are leading the emergence of a wider Muslim public sphere. Now available in paperback, it contains a new preface setting the debates in the context of September 11th.
Bringing together a variety of contemporary writers and filmmakers of Muslim heritage engaged in vindicating same-sex desire, this volume approaches queer Muslims in the diaspora as figures forced to negotiate their identities according to the expectations of the West and of their migrant Muslim communities.
On December 18, 1499, the Muslims in Granada revolted against the Christian city government's attempts to suppress their rights to live and worship as followers of Islam. Although the Granada riot was a local phenomenon that was soon contained, subsequent widespread rebellion provided the Christian government with an excuse—or justification, as its leaders saw things—to embark on the systematic elimination of the Islamic presence from Spain, as well as from the Iberian Peninsula as a whole, over the next hundred years. Picking up at the end of his earlier classic study, Islamic Spain, 1250 to 1500— which described the courageous efforts of the followers of Islam to preserve their secular, as well as sacred, culture in late medieval Spain—L. P. Harvey chronicles here the struggles of the Moriscos. These forced converts to Christianity lived clandestinely in the sixteenth century as Muslims, communicating in aljamiado— Spanish written in Arabic characters. More broadly, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, tells the story of an early modern nation struggling to deal with diversity and multiculturalism while torn by the fanaticism of the Counter-Reformation on one side and the threat of Ottoman expansion on the other. Harvey recounts how a century of tolerance degenerated into a vicious cycle of repression and rebellion until the final expulsion in 1614 of all Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. Retold in all its complexity and poignancy, this tale of religious intolerance, political maneuvering, and ethnic cleansing resonates with many modern concerns. Eagerly awaited by Islamist and Hispanist scholars since Harvey's first volume appeared in 1990, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, will be compulsory reading for student and specialist alike. “The year’s most rewarding historical work is L. P. Harvey’s Muslims in Spain 1500 to 1614, a sobering account of the various ways in which a venerable Islamic culture fell victim to Christian bigotry. Harvey never urges the topicality of his subject on us, but this aspect inevitably sharpens an already compelling book.”—Jonathan Keats, Times Literary Supplement
Few groups face as many misconceptions within their new countries as do Muslim immigrants. This book challenges the common misperceptions of Muslim immigrants as a homogeneous, religiously driven group and identifies the tensions they experience within their host countries. A comparative, multi-ethnic study, based on over two thousand interviews, Diaspora by Design examines Muslim populations that have settled in Canada, Britain, Iran, and Palestine. Utilizing hard socio-economic data as well as qualitative analysis, the authors show the remarkable diversity and divisions between Muslim immigrant populations along urban-rural, cultural, class, and gender lines. They argue that integration is a two-way exchange that requires a readiness on the part of the host society to remove barriers that prevent the full social and economic participation of immigrant populations. Extensively researched and thoughtfully provocative, Diaspora by Design is a much-needed work that provides an accurate and dynamic depiction of the lives of Muslim immigrants away from their homelands.