Explores all aspects of LIPs as key processes in shaping our planet, for researchers, graduate students and mining industry professionals.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 100. Continental flood basalts, volcanic passive margins, and oceanic plateaus represent the largest known volcanic episodes on our planet, yet they are not easily explained by plate tectonics. Indeed, some are likely to record periods when the outward transfer of material and energy from the Earth's interior operated in a significantly different mode than at present. In recent years, interest in large-scale mafic magmatism has surged as high-precision geochronological, detailed geochemical, and increasingly sophisticated geophysical data have become available for many provinces. However, the sheer amount of recent material, often in the form of detailed collaborative research projects, can overwhelm newcomers to the field and experts alike as the literature continues to grow dramatically. The need for an up-to-date review volume on a sizable subset of the major continental and oceanic flood basalt provinces, termed large igneous provinces, was recognized by the Commission on Large-Volume Basaltic Provinces (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior), and the co-editors were charged with organizing and implementing such a volume. We hope that this volume will be valuable to researchers and graduate students worldwide, particularly to petrologists, geochemists, geochronologists, geodynamicists, and plate-tectonics specialists; it may also interest planetologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric scientists.
Gondwana, comprising more than 64% of the present day continental mass, is home to 33% of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and key to understanding the lithosphere–atmosphere system and related tectonics that influenced global climate and sediment production on Earth. Gondwana has many of the largest LIPs, with areas of 200 000 to 2 000 000 km2. Several Gondwana LIPs erupted near active continental margins as well as within continents. The rifting of continents continued even after LIP emplacement or was aborted by a coeval compression and did not open into an ocean. Important contemporary frontiers include understanding significant amounts of synchronous silicic volcanic rocks in mafic LIPs, bringing better stratigraphic constraints supported by precise age dating and volume estimation of LIPs, the possible link between LIP emplacement and biotic crisis, refinement of the existing petrogenetic models and assessing large eruptions and associated societal risk. This volume covers topics on magma emplacements, petrology and geochemistry, source characteristics, flood basalt–carbonatite linkage, tectonics and geochronology of LIPs distributed in Gondwana continents.
The Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province in Northwest China: Tectonics, Petrology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics is the first book to introduce the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province. Based on more than twenty years of study, this book systematically presents time-spatial, geochemical and geodynamic features, along with the metallogenesis and magma evolution of the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province. Furthermore, it provides a new geodynamic model for Large Igneous Provinces. It is intended for researchers and graduate students in tectonics, igneous petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, earth evolution and planetary geology in addition to mining industry professionals. Provides the temporal-spatial features of the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province using seismic and borehole data Presents petrological and geochemical features and magma evolution of the rock units in Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province Builds up a new model for Large Igneous Provinces based on the information from the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India and one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. They consist of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt that together are more than 2,000 m thick and cover an area of 500,000 km2. The term 'trap', used in geology for such rock formations, is derived from the Swedish word for stairs referring to the step-like hills forming the landscape of the region.
"This volume covers topics on magma emplacements, petrology and geochemistry, source characteristics, flood basalt-carbonatite linkage, tectonics and geochronology of LIPs [large igneous provinces] distributed in Gondwana continents"--Back cover.
Exploring the links between Large Igneous Provinces and dramatic environmental impact An emerging consensus suggests that Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and Silicic LIPs (SLIPs) are a significant driver of dramatic global environmental and biological changes, including mass extinctions. Environmental changes caused by LIPs and SLIPs include rapid global warming, global cooling (‘Snowball Earth’), oceanic anoxia events, mercury poisoning, atmospheric and oceanic acidification, and sea level changes. Continued research to characterize the effects of these extremely large and typically short duration igneous events on atmospheric and oceanic chemistry through Earth history can provide lessons for understanding and mitigating modern climate change. Large Igneous Provinces: A Driver of Global Environmental and Biotic Changes describes the interactions between the effects of LIPs and other drivers of climatic change, the limits of the LIP effect, and the atmospheric and oceanic consequences of LIPs in significant environmental events. Volume highlights include: • Temporal record of large igneous provinces (LIPs) • Environmental impacts of LIP emplacement • Precambrian, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic case histories • Links between geochemical proxies and the LIP record • Alternative causes for environmental change • Key parameters related to LIPs and SLIPs for use in environmental change modelling • Role of LIPs in Permo-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic, and other mass extinction events The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
Understanding the Deccan Trap Large Igneous Province in western India is important for deciphering the India–Seychelles rifting mechanism. This book presents 13 studies that address the development of this province from diverse perspectives including field structural geology, geochemistry, analytical modelling, geomorphology and geophysics (e.g., palaeomagnetism, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and seismic imaging). Together, these papers indicate that the tectonics of Deccan is much more complicated than previously thought. Key findings include: the Deccan province can be divided into several blocks; the existence of a rift-induced palaeo-slope; constraints on the eruption period; rift–drift transition mechanisms determined for magma-rich systems; the tectonic role of the Deccan or Réunion plumes; sub-surface structures reported from boreholes; the delineation of the crust–mantle structure; the documentation of sub-surface tectonic boundaries; post-Deccan-Trap basin inversion; deformed dykes around Mumbai, and also from the eastern part of the Deccan Traps, documented in the field.
"This volume covers new developments and research on mass extinctions, volcanism, and impacts. It addresses the following topics: the Central Iapetus magmatic province; thermogenic degassing in large igneous provinces; global mercury enrichment in Valanginian sediments; Guerrero-Morelos carbonate platform response to the Caribbean-Colombian Cretaceous large igneous province; implications for the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary event in shallow platform environments and correlation to the deep sea; environmental effects of Deccan volcanism on biotic transformations and attendant Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary mass extinction in the Indian subcontinent; Deccan red boles; and factors leading to the collapse of producers during the Chicxulub impact and Deccan Traps eruptions"--
Dykes occur in a wide variety of geological and tectonic settings and their detailed study through space and time is imperative for understanding several geological events. Dykes are believed to be an integral part of continental rifting and when they occur as spatially extensive swarms of adequate size, they can be of immense utility in continental reconstructions and also help to identify Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). It is known that continental flood basalts and major dyke swarms have their origin related in some way to the up-rise of hot mantle plumes which may lead to rifting and eventual continental break-up. Dykes signify crustal extension and are important indicators of crustal stabilisation events, supercontinental assembly and dispersal, crust-mantle interaction and play a significant role in the delineation of crustal provinces as well as in deciphering crustal evolution events. Many economic mineral deposits of the world are also associated with a variety of dykes. The volume will provide state-of-the-art information on all aspects of dykes with emphasis on the origin, evolution and emplacement of dykes.
This unique book presents hundreds of spectacular photographs of large-scale to small-scale field geological features of flood basalt volcanism from around the world. Major flood basalt provinces covered in this book include the British Palaeogene, Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Columbia River, Deccan, East Greenland, Emeishan, Ethiopian, Ferrar-Karoo-Tasmania, Iceland, Indo-Madagascar, Paraná, Siberian, West Greenland, and others. Intermediate- to small-sized flood basalts (such as Saudi Arabia and South Caucasus) are also included. Different chapters of the book illustrate varied features of flood basalts, including landscapes, lava flow morphology and stacking, structures formed during lava flow transport, inflation and degassing, structures produced during lava solidification, subaqueous volcanism and volcanosedimentary associations, explosive volcanism, intrusions, igneous processes and magmatic diversity, tectonic deformation, secondary mineralization, and weathering and erosion. This book will be valuable for a large audience: specialists studying flood basalt volcanology, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, and environmental impact and mass extinction links; nonspecialists who want to know more about flood basalts; field geologists (such as those working in geological surveys); students of volcanology and igneous petrology, and even people employed in the industry, such as those working on flood basalt-hosted groundwater or petroleum reservoirs.
Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field. Based on over 300 color figures and the model of plate tectonics, the book offers insight into the generation of magmas and the occurrence and origin of volcanoes. The analysis and description of volcanic structures is followed by process oriented chapters discussing the role of magmatic gases as well as explosive mechanisms and sedimentation of volcanic material. The final chapters deal with the forecast of eruptions and their influence on climate. Students and scientists of a broad range of fields will use this book as an interesting and attractive source of information. Laypeople will find it a highly accessible and graphically beautiful way to acquire a state-of-the-art foundation in this fascinating field. "Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features... "I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism... I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists. Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book – and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005) "Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004) "The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book’s paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one. I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact—the book’s binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it! Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany’s Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book. However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text’s overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan’s Unzen volcano and Indonesia’s Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. " ( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)
This book is for geoscience students taking introductory or intermediate-level courses in igneous petrology, to help develop key skills (and confidence) in identifying igneous minerals, interpreting and allocating appropriate names to unknown rocks presented to them. The book thus serves, uniquely, both as a conventional course text and as a practical laboratory manual. Following an introduction reviewing igneous nomenclature, each chapter addresses a specific compositional category of magmatic rocks, covering definition, mineralogy, eruption/ emplacement processes, textures and crystallization processes, geotectonic distribution, geochemistry, and aspects of magma genesis. One chapter is devoted to phase equilibrium experiments and magma evolution; another introduces pyroclastic volcanology. Each chapter concludes with exercises, with the answers being provided at the end of the book. Appendices provide a summary of techniques and optical data for microscope mineral identification, an introduction to petrographic calculations, a glossary of petrological terms, and a list of symbols and units. The book is richly illustrated with line drawings, monochrome pictures and colour plates. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/gill/igneous.
The Miocene Columbia River flood basalt province covers ~210,000 km2 of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and forms part of a larger volcanic region that also includes contemporaneous silicic centers in northern Nevada, the basaltic and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain and Yellowstone plateau, and the High Lava Plains of central Oregon. The Columbia River flood basalt province is accessible and well exposed, making it one of the best-studied flood basalt provinces worldwide, and it serves as a model for understanding the stratigraphic development and petrogenesis of large igneous provinces through time. This volume details our current knowledge of the stratigraphy and physical volcanology; extent, volume, and age of the lava flows; the tectonic setting and history of the province; the petrogenesis of the lavas; and hydrogeology of the basalt aquifers.
This undergraduate textbook on the key subject of geology closely follows the core curriculum adopted by most universities throughout the world and is a must for every geology student. It covers all aspects of petrology, including not only the principles of petrology but also applications to the origin, composition, and field relationships of rocks. Although petrology is commonly taught in the junior year, this book is a useful resource for graduate students as well.
With an estimated erupted volume of 300,000 km3 and an areal extent of more than 200,000 km2, the Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) silicic volcanic rocks of the Rooiberg Group (Kaapvaal Craton) in northern South Africa forms one of the largest and to the same time oldest silicic large igneous provinces (SLIPs) known. This large volume of rocks can be sub-divided into four formations: the Dullstroom, Damwal, Kwaggasnek and Schrikkloof Formations. The results of this study show that a clear chemostratigraphy (by using major elements such as TiO2, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, P2O2, MgO, and Fe2O3) can be established in the area north of Loskop Dam, dividing the rocks of the study area into the Damwal, Kwaggasnek and Schrikkloof formations. The studied rocks are characterized by aphanitic lavas bearing amygdales, spherulitic textures and flow-bands with some sedimentary and pyroclastic interbeds. The dacites could mainly be described as high-Mg felsites (HMF), whereas the rhyolites could be described as low-Mg felsites (LMF). The negative Eu anomaly, Nb and Ta values of the upper part of the Rooiberg Group range between 5.38-24.2 and 0.45-1.86 ppm, respectively, similar to crustal compositions. Furthermore, Nb/Ta values range from 10.91-14.83 (also similar to typical crustal compositions) while few samples from the Damwal Formation exhibit higher values of 15.13-16.02, similar to mantle-derived compositions. Tectonic discriminant diagrams show that the rocks used in this study evolved from fractional crystallization of a mafic liquid although all samples plot in fields with crustal signatures. Plot of ƐNd and 87Sr/86Sr show a mantle-derived origin for the upper part of the Rooiberg Group. However, ƐNd values of the upper part of the Rooiberg Group range between ~-10 to ~-6, typical of crustal composition or continental basalts formed in the crust. From the results, the Rooiberg Group exhibit both mantle (as observed in the Dullstroom and lower Damwal formations) and crustal signatures as exhibited by the Kwaggasnek and Schrikkloof formations. This is interprested as a result of the interaction of the thick crust and a shallow mantle source within the Bushveld Province during magmatism. Furthermore, similarities in geochemical signatures between the Rooiberg Group and selected SLIPs around the world suggest a similar origin for SLIPs by fractional crystallization of a mafic melt and melted (or assimilated) crustal material.
Professor George Patrick Leonard Walker was one of the fathers of modern quantitative volcanology and arguably the foremost volcanologist of the twentieth century. In his long career, George studied a wide spectrum of volcanological problems and in doing so influenced almost every branch of the field. This volume, which honours his memory and his contributions to the field of volcanology, contains a collection of papers inspired by, and building upon, many of the ideas previously developed by George. Many of the contributors either directly studied under and worked with George, or were profoundly influenced by his ideas. The topics broadly fall under the three themes of lava flows and effusion, explosive volcanism, and volcanoes and their infrastructure.